Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD)
is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by
– exaggerated feelings of self-importance,
– an excessive need for admiration,
– a lack of understanding of others’ feelings.
– often spend a lot of time thinking about achieving power or success,
– often thinking about their appearance;
– often take advantage of the people around them;
– begins by early adulthood,
– and occurs across a variety of situations;
According to the DSM-5, individuals with NPD have most or all of the following symptoms, typically without commensurate qualities or accomplishments:
- Grandiosity with expectations of superior treatment from others
- Fixated on fantasies of power, success, intelligence, attractiveness, etc.
- Self-perception of being unique, superior and associated with high-status people and institutions
- Needing constant admiration from others
- Sense of entitlement to special treatment and to obedience from others
- Exploitative of others to achieve personal gain
- Unwilling to empathize with others’ feelings, wishes, or needs
- Intensely jealous of others and the belief that others are equally jealous of them
- Pompous and arrogant demeanor
People with NPD tend to
- exaggerate their skills and accomplishments
- as well as their level of intimacy with people they consider to be high-status;
- monopolize conversations
- become impatient or disdainful when others talk about themselves;
- may purposefully or unknowingly disparage or devalue the other person by overemphasizing their own success;
- when they are aware that their statements have hurt someone else, they tend to react with contempt and to view it as a sign of weakness;
- when their own ego is wounded by a real or perceived criticism, their anger can be disproportionate to situation,
- but typically, their actions and responses are deliberate and calculated.
- despite occasional flare-ups of insecurity, their self-image is primarily stable (i.e., overinflated);
To the extent that people are pathologically narcissistic, they can be
- intolerant of others’ views,
- unaware of others’ needs,
- unaware of the effects of their behavior on others,
- and insistent that others see them as they wish to be seen;
- use various strategies to protect the self at the expense of others;
- insult others and
- often respond to threatening feedback with anger and hostility.
- fragile ego
- hypersensitive to perceived criticism or defeat,
- they are prone to feelings of shame, humiliation and worthlessness over minor or even imagined incidents;
- usually mask feelings from others with
- feigned humility,
- isolating socially
- may react with outbursts of rage,
- or by seeking revenge.
The merging of the “inflated self-concept” and the “actual self” is seen in the inherent grandiosity of narcissistic personality disorder. Also inherent in this process are the defense mechanisms of denial,idealization and devaluation.